MacroScripts are scripts that are associated with toolbar buttons and are executed when the corresponding toolbar button is clicked. MacroScripts have to be defined with the macroScript definition construct and can then be associated with a toolbar button by right-clicking a Shortcut toolbar or Tab and choosing Customize. The Customize User-Interface dialog is displayed, which lets you choose from either Command shortcuts or MacroScripts. MacroScripts are essentially pieces of MAXScript code that have a name and category, and optionally a tooltip and icon.
MacroScripts do not automatically create user-interface items. If you want a MacroScript to display a dialog, you will need to create a rollout floater window and rollout(s) as described in Rollout Floater Windows, and create and install the user-interface items in the rollout(s) as described in Rollout User-Interface Controls.
Define a MacroScript using the following syntax:
macroScript <name> [ category:<string> ] [buttonText:<string>] [toolTip:<string>] [icon:#(<string>, <index>) | icon:<string>] [silentErrors:<boolean>] ( <macro_script_body> )
macroScript Free_Camera category:"Cameras" tooltip:"Free Camera"
macroScript Target_Camera category:"Cameras"
tooltip:"Targeted Camera" Icon:#("Cameras",1)
After MAXScript evaluates a macroScript construct, the MacroScript definition will show up in the appropriate category list in the Customize User-Interface dialog. The following figure shows a Customize User Interface dialog containing the previous two MacroScripts.
If a tooltip is specified, that tooltip is the name shown in the Customize User Interface dialog. If a tooltip is not specified, <name> is the name shown. Unlike other similar constructs (Scripted Utilities, Functions, and right-click menus), macroScript does not create a variable with this name. Rather, MacroScripts are stored as pointers into files, as described below.
You can use non-alpha numeric characters to define any of the argument strings. This includes support for escaped double quote characters: \".
The category: argument specifies in which category in the Customize User-Interface dialog the MacroScript name will be listed. The use of categories is intended to help you organize your MacroScripts into groupings so that the MacroScript names are less likely to clash. If you do not specify a category, a default category of "unknown" is used.
The internalCategory argument is intended to identify operations in .cui, .mnu, and .kbd files.
The toolTip: argument specifies the tooltip for the button. If no tooltip is specified, <name> is displayed for the button.
The buttonText: argument specifies the text that will appear in the button, and the icon: argument specifies the icon that will appear in the button. You can choose in the Customize User Interface dialog whether the buttonText or icon appears in the button. If no buttonText: argument is specified, the MacroScript name is used as the buttonText.
The icon: argument specifies the icon bitmap file and the icon image within the icon bitmap file. The icon bitmap file must be located in the current 3ds Max user-interface directory. Icon bitmap files have a base name, such as "MyToolbar", followed by a suffix, such as "_24i.bmp", that specifies the individual icon size and icon bitmap file type. The icon: argument string is just the base name, with no extensions present. This base name is the name shown in the Image Group list in the Customize User-Interface dialog. Each icon bitmap file can have any number of individual icons, lined up side-by-side in the file. If the icon bitmap file contains multiple icons, <index> specifies which icon in the icon bitmap file to use. The left-most icon has an <index> of 1. The 3ds Max internal icons (Image Group Internal in the Customize User-Interface dialog) are not stored in an icon file, and are referenced by using an empty string as the icon: argument.
So, the icon: argument can be either a two-element array containing the icon bitmap file’s base name as a string and the icon’s index in that file, or just a base name string, with the index 1 assumed.
macroScript Box category:"Objects" tooltip:"Box"
icon:#("standard", 1) -- use first icon in standard
macroScript Sphere category:"Objects" tooltip:"Sphere"
icon:#("", 2) -- use second icon in internal icons
macroScript Cone category:"Objects" tooltip:"Cone"
icon:"myicon" -- use first icon in myicon
See Creating Icon Bitmap Files for more information.
The silentErrors: parameter gives control over whether MAXScript runtime error messages are displayed while executing the MacroScript. If this parameter is set to true, error messages will not be displayed. This may be useful for distributed MacroScripts that may confuse the user with MAXScript error messages. The default value is false.
The <macro_script_body> can be one of two forms. The body can be either a single MAXScript expression, or a set of event handlers. An <event_handler> is a special function definition local to the macroscript that handles events generated by 3ds Max.
The valid <event_name> are:
on isChecked do <expr>
If <expr> returns true and the macroscript item is in a menu or quad menu, a check mark is placed next to the macroscript item. If the macroscript is a toolbar button, the button will appear as "pressed in". The do is optional for this event handler. If this event handler is not specified, the item will not be checked.
on isEnabled do <expr>
If <expr> returns false and the macroscript item is in a menu or quad menu, the macroscript item will not appear in the menu or quad menu. If the macroscript is a toolbar button, the button will be disabled. The do is optional for this event handler. If this event handler is not specified, the item will be enabled.
on isVisible do <expr>
If <expr> returns false and the macroscript item is in a menu or quad menu, the macroscript item will not appear in the menu or quad menu. If the macroscript is a toolbar button, this handler has no affect. The do is optional for this event handler. If this event handler is not specified, the item will be visible.
on execute do <expr>
The expression evaluated when the menu or quad menu item is chosen, or the toolbar button clicked. A runtime error will be generated if this event handler is not specified.
category:"Lights and Cameras"
internalcategory:"Lights and Cameras"
on execute do StartObjectCreation FreeCamera
on isChecked return (mcrUtils.IsCreating FreeCamera)
tooltip:"Vertex Sub-object Mode"
on isChecked (subObjectLevel == 1 and filters.canSwitchTo_Vertex())
on isEnabled Filters.canSwitchTo_Vertex()
on isVisible Filters.canSwitchTo_Vertex()
on execute do
if subObjectLevel == undefined then max modify mode
if subObjectLevel != 1 then subObjectLevel = 1 else subObjectLevel = 0
on altExecute <type> do <expr>
If a macroScript implements the altExecute event handler, then a mouse icon (with dark click button) appears in the quad menu item that corresponds to the macroScript. When the icon is clicked, the event handler is executed with <type> being #default.
For example, the following adds alternative execute functionality to the standard "Wire Parameters" quad menu. When you click the icon, it pops the Param Wiring Editor instead of putting into the Wiring mode.
tooltip:"Start Parameter Wiring"
on isEnabled return selection.count == 1
on execute do (paramWire.start())
on altExecute type do
on closeDialogs do <expr>
The closeDialogs is handler is called instead of the on Execute handler whenever the isChecked handler returns true (the button / icon / item is checked ). It can be used to TOGGLE back to the unchecked state. This handler should implement any cleanup code that closes any open dialogs and basically returns the macroScript to a pre-executed state.
The closeDialogs handler depends on the existence of the isChecked handler. If an on closeDialogs handler is defined without an isChecked handler to be defined, a compile-time error will be thrown!
Here is an test of a MacroScript which toggles its rollout on and off:
macroScript testCloseDialogs category:"MXS Help"
rollout testCloseRollout "Test" --define a rollout
label lb_test "testing CloseDialogs handler..."
on isChecked do testCloseRollout.open --return true if rollout is open
--if isChecked returns false (the rollout is not open in a dialog),
--the on execute handler will be called and will create the dialog.
on execute do createDialog testCloseRollout
--If isChecked returns true and the user pressed the button again,
--instead of calling the on execute handler, the macroScript will call
--the on closeDialogs handler and destroy the dialog.
on closeDialogs do destroyDialog testCloseRollout
--If you drag the macroScript to a toolbar and click the button,
--a dialog should appear and the button should be checked.
--Click it again and the dialog will disappear.
--Repeat as often as you want - the dialog will be toggled on and off!
on droppable <window> node: point: do ...
on drop <window> node: point: do ...
These optional MacroScript event handlers can be used to define so-called DropScripts that can be used in conjunction with the i-Drop technology. See DropScript Events for details.
The <macro_script_body> can contain global and local variables, functions, and structure definitions. The <macro_script_body> is compiled in its own local scope, and the locals are only visible inside the scope of the MacroScript. MacroScript locals are heap-based locals, which are slightly different from normal (stack-based) locals.
Normal locals are visible in the current scope and have a lifetime of one execution of that scope. Heap-based locals are also visible only in the current scope, but have a lifetime equal to the lifetime of the top-level expression where they are defined. A MacroScript’s locals are created the first time you execute the MacroScript, initialized to a value of undefined, or to their specified initialization value. These values are stored in a separate memory stack. On entry to each function (or top level script) in the MacroScript, a ‘frame’ in the memory stack is marked and when the function (or top level script) exits, all of the values in the frame are freed from the memory.
Because a MacroScript’s name is not created as a variable, you cannot access a MacroScript’s locals outside the scope of the MacroScript. So, for example, you can create a rollout in a MacroScript, and the rollout’s event handlers can access the locals defined in the MacroScript because the rollout is executing within the scope of the MacroScript. However, you cannot access the MacroScript’s locals from another utility or from the Listener, because they are not executing within the scope of the MacroScript. See Scope of Variables for more information.
When you execute a macroScript definition, the return value is an integer MacroScript ID value. MAXScript internally stores information about each MacroScript in an array, and the returned MacroScript ID value is the array index for that MacroScript. The information stored for each MacroScript consists of the file in which that MacroScript is defined and a pointer into that file specifying where the MacroScript definition begins. The MacroScript definition is only compiled when you first press a toolbar button that contains the script, or execute the MacroScript using the macros.run() method.
The default user-interface directory and its subdirectories will be automatically scanned at startup for files of type .mcr, which will be parsed for MacroScript definitions.
A MacroScript definition is executed in an Editor window, in a script file that you execute, or in a startup script file.
If you evaluate a MacroScript definition in the Listener window, a file will automatically be created to contain the MacroScript definition. This file is stored in the MacroScripts directory under the current user-interface directory.
MAXScript supports text drag onto toolbars to create MacroScript buttons. You can select and drag text from any text window, such as Listener window panes or Editor windows, onto any visible toolbar. The cursor changes to an arrow with + sign when it is OK to drop the text. If you drop it, a MacroScript button is added to the toolbar with the dropped text as the body of the MacroScript. The classic case here would be to drag some text from the Macro Recorder pane in the Listener window onto a toolbar to make a button that does the sequence of events just recorded. Remember that tabbed elements on the Shelf are toolbars and can accept dropped text. MAXScript will automatically enclose the text in a MacroScript definition with a MacroScript name of DragAndDrop-MacroN, where N is a number that will make the MacroScript name unique. The category will be DragAndDrop and no tooltip is specified. As with MacroScripts defined in the Listener window, a file will automatically be created to contain the MacroScript definition. This file is stored in the MacroScripts directory under the current user-interface directory.
A MacroScript can be defined using the macros.new() method described next. As with MacroScripts defined in the Listener window, a file will automatically be created to contain the MacroScript definition. This file is stored in the MacroScripts directory under the current user-interface directory.
If you move or delete a file that contains a MacroScript definition that has been loaded, and try to execute the MacroScript, you will get an error message. Further, if you edit a file containing MacroScript definitions, take care to save and re-evaluate the entire file so any other MacroScripts defined in that file will have their file pointer updated. If you don't do this, you may get an error message saying the currently loaded definition no longer matches its file.
If you reevaluate a MacroScript definition, any button using that MacroScript will see any changes you make.
Any macroScript definition evaluated in MAXScript or created by dropping text onto a toolbar has a separate definition .mcr file created in the MacroScripts directory under the current user-interface directory (typically UI\MacroScripts). The name of the file is <category_name>-<macro_name>.mcr,
DragAndDrop-Macro12.mcr for macroScript Macro12 category:"DragAndDrop"
NURBS-Map_Updater.mcr for macroScript Map_Updater category:"NURBS"
If you evaluate a macroScript definition in the Listener or drop text on a toolbar, its recorded definition file is this backing file in UI\MacroScripts. This definition file is the one that gets opened if you hit Edit MacroScript in the CUI customize menus or dialogs. For macroScript definitions evaluated in Listener, this means the same definition will be updated each time you evaluate it, rather than having separate backing file for each evaluation.
If you evaluate macroScript definitions in a .ms or .mcr file that does not already reside in the UI\MacroScripts directory, a copy for each will be placed in a separate file in UI\MacroScripts, but the recorded definition file will be the original source file, so that hitting Edit MacroScript will go to that file.
This means that if any buttons containing such macroScript definitions are added to toolbars in the startup.cui file, the backing .mcr file in UI\MacroScripts will be used as its definition at the next 3ds Max startup. When you start 3ds Max, the macroScript definitions will taken from the backing files in UI\MacroScripts. If these MacroScripts are also defined in MAXScript startup script files, they will be re-defined at MAXScript startup and so the definition file of record will be updated to point to the script file.
MAXScript provides several methods that allow you to access and run MacroScripts from within a script. These MacroScript functions are in a structure package named macros. For a description of the available methods, see the Macro Scripts topic.
The following MacroScript allows you to render directly to the RAMPlayer. This MacroScript shows the use of rollouts and rollout floater windows in MacroScripts.
-- MacroScript to Render to RamPlayer
-- Author: Alexander Bicalho
-- MODIFY THIS AT YOUR OWN RISK
-- This utility will allow you to render directly to the RamPlayer
MacroScript RAM_Render category:"Tools" tooltip:"Render to Ram"
-- declare local variables and define some functions
local get_names existFile
function get_names name a = append a name
function existFile fname = (getfiles fname).count != 0
-- create the rollout definition
rollout r_size "Render Parameters"
local p = 95
local p2 = p+78
group "Time Output"
radiobuttons r_time columns:1 align:#left labels:#("Single","Active Time Segment","Range:" )
spinner nth "Every Nth Frame:" pos:[215,24] fieldwidth:50 type:#integer range:[0,10000,1] enabled:false
spinner r_from fieldwidth:60 pos:[75,56] type:#integer range:[0,10000,1] enabled:false
spinner r_to "To:" fieldwidth:60 pos:[152,56] type:#integer range:[0,10000,100] enabled:false
group "Render Size"
spinner rw "Width " fieldwidth:60 pos:[15,p+08] type:#integer range:[0,10000,320]
spinner rh "Height " fieldwidth:60 pos:[12,p+32] type:#integer range:[0,10000,240]
spinner aspect "Aspect " fieldwidth:60 pos:[10,p+56] type:#float range:[0,20,1.0]
button s160 "160x120" pos:[125,p+06] width:75 height:19
button s256 "256x243" pos:[125,p+30] width:75 height:19
button s320 "320x240" pos:[205,p+06] width:75 height:19
button s512 "512x486" pos:[205,p+30] width:75 height:19
button s640 "640x480" pos:[285,p+06] width:75 height:19
button s720 "720x486" pos:[285,p+30] width:75 height:19
button conf_render "Configure" pos:[125,p+54] width:115 height:19
button wipe "Purge Files" pos:[245,p+54] width:115 height:19
button go "Render" pos:[125,p+78] width:235 height:19
label abt0 "Render to RAM" pos:[8,p2+31]
label abt1 "Version 0.2a" pos:[8,p2+46]
label abt2 "Alexander Esppeschit Bicalho" pos:[225,p2+31]
label abt3 "email@example.com" pos:[249,p2+46]
-- define the rollout event handlers
on wipe pressed do
local tempfilename_a = (getdir #image) + "\\ramplayertemp_a.avi"
local tempfilename_b = (getdir #image) + "\\ramplayertemp_b.avi"
if existfile tempfilename_a then deletefile tempfilename_a
if existfile tempfilename_b then deletefile tempfilename_b
on r_time changed state do
case state of
1: nth.enabled = r_from.enabled = r_to.enabled = false
nth.enabled = true
r_from.enabled = r_to.enabled = false
3: nth.enabled = r_from.enabled = r_to.enabled = true
on s160 pressed do (rw.value=160; rh.value=120; aspect.value=1.0)
on s320 pressed do (rw.value=320; rh.value=240; aspect.value=1.0)
on s256 pressed do (rw.value=256; rh.value=243; aspect.value=1.266)
on s512 pressed do (rw.value=512; rh.value=486; aspect.value=1.266)
on s640 pressed do (rw.value=640; rh.value=480; aspect.value=1.0)
on s720 pressed do (rw.value=720; rh.value=486; aspect.value=0.9)
on conf_render pressed do (max render scene)
on go pressed do
local tempfilename_a = (getdir #image) + "\\ramplayertemp_a.avi"
local tempfilename_b = (getdir #image) + "\\ramplayertemp_b.avi"
if existfile tempfilename_b then
copyfile tempfilename_b tempfilename_a
tempfilename = tempfilename_b
if existfile tempfilename_a then
tempfilename = tempfilename_b
tempfilename = tempfilename_a
tempfilename_b = ""
case r_time.state of
1: ( render outputheight:rh.value outputwidth:rw.value pixelaspect:aspect.value outputfile:tempfilename vfb:off )
2: ( render outputheight:rh.value outputwidth:rw.value pixelaspect:aspect.value outputfile:tempfilename vfb:off nthframe:nth.value framerange:#active )
3: ( render outputheight:rh.value outputwidth:rw.value pixelaspect:aspect.value outputfile:tempfilename vfb:off nthframe:nth.value fromframe:r_from.value toframe:r_to.value )
ramplayer tempfilename_a tempfilename_b
) -- end of on go pressed
) -- end of rollout r_size
-- close the old rollout floater if it exists
-- put up new rollout floater and add rollout to it.
r_dialogue = newrolloutfloater "Render to RAM" 400 300
addrollout r_size r_dialogue
-- end of MacroScript, rollout takes over...